By – Dr. Satabdi Dey, Fertility Consultant at Nova IVF Fertility East, Siliguri
The relationship between thyroid and fertility health is an important one, as the two are closely linked as thyroid hormones play a vital role in regulating reproductive hormones, which can affect fertility in both men and women. When thyroid hormones are out of balance, it can lead to infertility or difficulty conceiving. Thus, understanding how thyroid hormones affect fertility is critical for those who are trying to conceive or struggling with infertility. Here are the thyroid conditions that lead to fertility issues:
Hashimoto’s disease is an autoimmune disorder in which the body produces antibodies that attack the thyroid cell. Women are generally more afflicted with Hashimoto’s, but it affects men as well. If not treated properly, the symptoms can worsen and lead to fertility issues, such as poor semen quality in men and women, which can make getting pregnant more difficult, because low thyroid hormone levels interfere with ovulation. If a woman does not ovulate, no egg is released for fertilization by sperm. Pregnancy is not possible in the absence of fertilization.
It’s a condition where the thyroid hormones are overproduced as a result of an immune system imbalance (hyperthyroidism). Compared to men, women have a substantially higher risk of developing Graves’ disease. Preterm birth, thyroid malfunction in the fetus, stunted growth in the fetus, heart failure in the mother, and preeclampsia are all potential problems of Graves’ illness during pregnancy.
Infertility difficulties from hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism
An individual’s fertility may suffer from hypothyroidism, making it more challenging to conceive and carry a pregnancy to term. Uncontrolled thyroid disease makes it difficult for women to conceive by hampering ovulation and implantation. Inadequate implantation could lead to an early miscarriage as well. The following effects on fertility can be caused by hypothyroidism, a condition of low thyroid hormone levels:
● Menstrual cycle irregularity makes it more difficult to get pregnant.
● Premature birth
● increased risk of miscarriage
● Interference with the release of an egg from the ovaries (ovulation) is a possible consequence.
Hypothyroidism is frequently diagnosed with a quick blood test for thyroid-stimulating hormone. Even so, a lot of them go untreated, particularly those with vague symptoms known as subclinical hypothyroidism. The following are some common symptoms of hypothyroidism:
● Weight Gain
● Heavy and frequent menstrual cycle
● Dry skin and hair
● Cold Intolerance
Hyperthyroidism is a condition of a hyperactive thyroid gland. This can seriously affect fertility in men and women. Women with hypothyroidism find it much more difficult to get pregnant and bear children. Moreover, in men, the consequences of hyperthyroidism are directly related to semen quality, motility, and morphology.
Conclusion: For pregnant mothers, it’s crucial to get regular thyroid function tests done during pregnancy if advised by the doctor. Furthermore, we must make sure that we have frequent health screenings, create excellent habits, and eradicate vices from our environment, such as excessive drinking, smoking, and unsaturated food products. Early diagnosis and identification are vital in the fight against thyroid diseases and in improving fertility.