All You Need To Know About Autism Spectrum Disorder

A Neuro-Developmental Disorder characterized by deficits in social and language Disorder typically appears during the first three years of life.

Dr. Manisha Singhal, Clinical Psychologist & Psychotherapist at Apollo Hospitals & Metro Hospital Noida

Autism Spectrum Disorder is a neuro-developmental disorder characterized by deficits in social and language disorder that typically appears during the first three years of life.

The result of a brain disorder, Autism affects a person’s communication, cognition, and social interaction.

Autistic Behaviour cluster into 3 categories:

1. Social Interaction
2. Communication
3. Stereotyped Patterns Of Behaviour, interests & activities

ALSO READ: Why Mental Health Care Matters For Children With Autism

What Causes Autism?

Some genetic predisposition interacts with as-yet-unknown environmental factors that result in an alteration to the sensory nervous system, the brain, the immune system, and often the gastrointestinal tract as well.

Few Facts About Autism

  • It’s a permanent condition and lasts throughout the lifetime of the individual.
  • Autism may coexist with other disorders.
  • Autism is more prevalent in boys than girls.
  • Approximately, 1 in 110 children is diagnosed with Autism.
  • Symptoms may change, particularly in response to effective training programs.
  • Autism knows no racial, ethnic, or social boundaries, family income, lifestyle or educational levels.
  • The exact etiology is still unknown but experts generally believe that Autism is caused by some form of brain abnormality.

ALSO READ: Hormone Level In Infants May Predict Autism Diagnosis

Differential Diagnosis

  • Rett’s Disorder
  • Asperger’s Disorder
  • Mental Retardation
  • Childhood Disintegrative Psychosis
  • Schizophrenia
  • Tourette Syndrome
  • Hearing Impairment
  • Developmental Language Disorder
  • Visual Impairment
  • Social Deprivation

Symptoms Of Autism Spectrum Disorder

  • Hypersensitivity to smell
  • Touch and tactile sensitivity
  • Speech and language deficits
  • Echolalia
  • Repeating unintelligible sounds
  • Interrupting or speaking over people
  • Delayed response to speech
  • Articulation difficulties
  • Sensitivity to light frequencies
  • Looking away from someone; Avoids eye contact
  • Looking fearful/frightened
  • Withdraws remain aloof
  • Laughs, giggles, cries inappropriately
  • Uses toys/objects inappropriately
  • Lines up the objects
  • Flaps hands/fingers in front of the face
  • Slaps/hits/bites self or attempts to injure self in other ways
  • Prances, Stands on tiptoes
  • Rocks back & forth
  • Eats some specific foods
  • Whirls/turns in circles
  • Makes rapid lunging/darting movements
  • Speaks/signs with a flat tone
  • Unaffectionate
  • Gets upset if the routine is changed.

Management For ASD

  • Occupational Therapy
  • Speech Therapy
  • Regular Psychological support & counseling of the child as well as the caretakers
  • Patience Is The Key!
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